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盘点:2017卫浴行业八大“瓶颈”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 杭州在全国率先推出不动产抵押登记“全程网办” (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

家居建材企业触网离不开成熟的第三方平台

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

'We are quite confident that it should sell towards the high end of the estimate or above.'
Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler are case studies of demagogues turned into despots.
Porto is nearly synonymous to port wine, and also its rich history. The city's historic center and the Alto Douro Wine Region have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
For: Strong reviews, and praise for the performances - particularly from the children at the centre of the story, and Willem Dafoe, who plays the manager of the motel where they live.
从什么时候起,冬季成了一年中电视节目最丰富的季节?今年秋天有许多首播电视剧做了有组织的盛大宣传,获得不少关注,但更多有趣的剧集还是在一年中的前三个月中登陆有线台、无线台和网络。
一位毕业生表示:“伦敦商学院拓宽了我的专业视野,开启了国际职业机遇。”他补充称:“在毕业后的3年里,我在美国、加拿大和香港工作过,辗转于公司银行业务、债务资本市场等多个领域。”
单词tunnel 联想记忆:

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Footnotes

  • 报告:北上广白领城市归属感较低
  • 但是,那些宣称不大可能会消失。阿拉巴马州大学亨茨维尔校区的大气科学家约翰·R·克里斯蒂(John R. Christy)以怀疑全球变暖的严重性而知名,他在一次采访中指出,2014年的记录只比以前年度的创纪录温度高出百分之几度,完全是在全球温度测量值的误差范围之内。克里斯蒂说,“自20世纪末,气温并没有太多变化,一直处于较暖的稳定水平。”

“然而,考虑到政策紧缩的延迟影响,以及房地产市场降温将在未来数个季度压制中国对大宗商品的需求,我们怀疑出口的增长势头是否还能维持下去。”
China's actual use of foreign capital during the 2010-2015 period is expected to reach 620 billion USdollars with the tertiary sector taking over 60 percent of total foreign capital. Outbound direct investment grew at 14.2 percent annually.
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黑色系暴涨逼近年内高点 引领建材“银十”行情

References

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