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成本上涨 中山产家具或将掀起新一轮“涨价潮”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2017家居行业转型升级 应该瞄准哪里? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

中国经济平稳运行的基础依然坚实

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

中国社科院表示,在中国的工业及相关领域中,农民工们提供了50%的劳动力。然而由于户籍规定,他们却无法享受到与城市居民同等的权利。
Mr. Wang, the WeChat user in Beijing, said he was an avid QQ user 11 years ago but stopped using the instant messaging service because 'it didn't look very professional.' But after downloading WeChat on his smartphone he found 'most of my colleagues and friends are on it, and everyone communicates through voicemails now.'
Spider-Man: Homecoming
中国社科院表示,在中国的工业及相关领域中,农民工们提供了50%的劳动力。然而由于户籍规定,他们却无法享受到与城市居民同等的权利。
7. Smart cookie oven
A Larger Profile
该报道称,并没有老师和学生喝了有毒的水。

如果Lloyd Grossman有机会进入奥斯卡得主们的家中,他将会在很多不同的地方看到他们各自的小金人,从高级房产的壁炉台到积尘良久的壁橱深处,都可能看到它的身影。
PC demand has been hit by competition from smartphones and tablets, along with longer lifecycles for PCs. Shipments fell in all regions around the world and have declined for five quarters in a row, according to IDC's figures.
3. Your boss received your résumé from a contact of a contact。
Peer review is an evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to those who produce the work, which helps validate research.
Strong reviews, and praise for the performances - particularly from the children at the centre of the story, and Willem Dafoe, who plays the manager of the motel where they live.

Footnotes

  • 一线城市房价上涨预期强 商住房市场成投资热点
  • It was a rare glimpse into his closely guarded personal life that also put at risk Apple’s brand in less tolerant parts of the world. Mr Cook was driven to take a stand by his experiences growing up in Alabama, where he has talked of seeing discrimination that “literally would make me sick”.

The high-end model is an addition to Apple’s line-up, alongside more incremental updates to the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus released last year.
Ellen DeGeneres
唐同学怀疑水中被混合了有毒物质,便把此事报告给班长和老师。
谢琳 伍德蕾
我喜欢这个列表(很棒的观点),但是我觉得我要更详细的完善一下怎样成为一个高效老板或者经理。
勒布朗·詹姆斯

一线城市二手房市场回暖 北京挂牌量成交量涨幅明显

References

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