HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 17:46:36 GMT 男人的天堂东京在线观看

信息化+家具业可使效率提高两倍 没有理由不用

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 住宅库存面积下降 一二线城市房企入市升温 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

欧盟涂料镉监管拟再升级

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

飓风厄玛
2018年,将会有更多商业领袖利用数字化、代际变动和多元化不断提高的强大结合,来精简企业层级结构,分配责任,转变他们所在的组织。
“Welcome to Me” (Shira Piven)
我在世界最知名的公司之一找到了一份工作,对此学校的关系网络起到了重要的作用,鹿特丹管理学院(Rotterdam School of Management)一名毕业生表示,这家公司是学校的一个公司合作伙伴,因此我基本上是在我的邮箱收到工作申请书的。
“An employee bragged to all his colleagues that it was his last day, but failed to let his boss or the HR manager know.”
社会科学家们分析了来自大西洋两岸的数据,发现了一些惊人的事情:在社区内,引起白人不满,并令他们支持反移民政策的,并不是多样化民族或种族的人数,而是变化的速度。
As stars such as Kevin Spacey and Morgan Freeman were alleged to have assaulted or harassed performers, activists began using the hashtag to share their ordeals online.

President Barack Obama won re-election to a second term in the White House on Tuesday, television networks projected, beating Republican challenger Mitt Romney after a long and bitter campaign。
福布斯表示,如果不扣除管理费和税费,在2015年6月1日到2016年6月1日期间,全球收入最高的10位女星共入账2.05亿美元。
“I saw a woman die and I saw the president of the United States refuse to unequivocally condemn the people who killed her.”
7.Make Practice Tests
'He does smoke cigarettes, he smokes many, many cigarettes.

Footnotes

  • 穿透式监管趋严 房地产信托快速增长时代料终结
  • 前述北京微信用户Robin Wang说,11年前他是一位忠实的QQ用户,但现在已经停用这款即时通讯服务,因为它显得不够专业。但自从在手机上下载微信之后,他发现多数同事和朋友都在上面,现在大家都通过语音邮件交流了。

我们也不希望打贸易战。我们坚持人民币汇率形成机制的改革,保持了人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。
corpor躯体,al-法人的
As for the molecular motors, they’re geared up to bring huge potential to the fields of medicine and energy.
The Lord of the Rings trilogy. The amount of time before I need an oil change. My cell phone's battery charge. What do all of these things have in common? The
10. How to find IP address
Successful CEOs tend to follow a structured, daily schedule of rising early, exercising, having snacks on hand for fuel and socializing many evenings of the week.

违建管不住?广州住建厅发话:未来三年要打赢整治违建攻坚战

References

View Abstract